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Spiritual and Moral System

Reference : Dr Javed Jamil

Complete Series

A Systematic Study of the Holy Qur’an-23

Spiritual and Moral System

Spiritual
and Moral
System


In Islam, spiritual elevation is not an isolated discipline; it is the part of the overall system aimed at achieving peace at all levels. Islam does not promote isolationism or monasticism. It does not support such spiritual exercises as are bereft of responsibility towards family and society. Spiritual exercises in Islam are aimed at building character; and character-building in the sight of God is not limited to an individual; the character of the family and that of society are of equal importance. The spiritual exercises primarily involve Ehsan meaning the Best Conduct, Taqwa whch means utmost alertness to act only within the boundaries provided by the Shariah, control of Nafs so that it does not fall victim to the vicissitudes of the  corrupt world, and concern for others only for the Pleasure (Ridha) of God. One cannot become a true Momin until one achievesgnosis (Maarifah or Irfan) of God and His Messenger.  Gnosis applies to a specific stage of knowledge which is attained not just through studies and researches but also through personal experiences attained through total involvement.  The real Iman is not just the declaration of faith in God and His Messengers; but obeying them in every sphere of life. For this purpose one has to follow the examples set by the Messengers, particularly Muhammad, the Last Messenger, his Ahl-e-Bayt and his Sahaba (True Companions).
 

 

In Islam, every follower is expected to work for his or her spiritual ascent which is as much achieved through the realisation of the Rights of Creatures (Huquq-al-Ibad) as much of the Rights of the Creator (Huquq-Allah). Rights of Creatures include not only the rights of human beings in different positions, but also the rights of inanimate creatures like water, air, animals, plants and other components of environment. If one wants to raise one’s spiritual level, one has to be righteous in deeds. One must be courteous in behaviour, give as much in charity as one can (not for famebut for the pleasure of God), encourage others to perform virtuous deeds and avoid all forms of evils, help the week, the needy and the downtrodden, not get involved in any of the undesirable acts; shun violence, not speak ill of others, not boast, not feel arrogant, not preach hatred, not believe in superstitions, and so on. To develop high moral standards, one must concentrate on prayers; prayers and invocations soften the heart, purify the soul and revitalise the spirit so that one develops internal aversion for evils and inclination towards virtues as one comes under God’s special protection. In short, spiritualism in Islam is the other name of internal revolution that ultimately leads to one’s determination and resolve to join external revolution.

 

 

In the name of God, the Kind, the Merciful

 


Spiritual and Moral System in the Qur'an
 

 

Models

 

·   O ye who believe! Obey God, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to God and His Messenger, if ye do believe in God and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination. (4: 59/A)

 

· And God only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless. (33: 33/A)

 

· The vanguard (of Islam)- the first of those who  forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well- pleased is God with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme   felicity... (9: 100/A)(Note: Companions include Muhajirs (who  left Mecca for Islam) and Ansar (Helpers), the people of Medina who helped Muhajirs settle there).

 

True righteousness

 

·It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards east or west; but it is righteousness-to believe in God and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing. (2: 177/A)

 

·And there is the type of man who gives his life to earn the pleasure of God. And God is full of kindness to (His) devotees. (2: 207/A)

 

Peace, not evil

 

·O ye who believe! Enter into Islam (Peace) wholeheartedly; and follow not the footsteps of the evil one; for he is to you an avowed enemy. (2: 208/A)

 

·Is there any Reward for Good - other than Good? (55: 60/A)

 

Patience

 

·For in God’s sight are (all) His servants,- (namely), those who say: “Our Lord! we have indeed believed: forgive us, then, our sins, and save us from the agony of the Fire;”- Those who show patience, firmness and self-control; who are true (in word and deed); who worship devoutly; who spend (in the way of God.; and who pray for forgiveness in the early hours of the morning. (3: 15-17/A)

 

Sacrifices important

 

·By no means shall ye attain righteousness unless ye give (freely) of that which ye love; and whatever ye give, of a truth God knoweth it well. (3: 92/A)

 

Help the Needy

 

·Serve God, and join not any partners with Him; and do good- to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, those in need, neighbours who are near, neighbours who are strangers, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (ye meet), and what your right hands possess... (4: 36/A)

 

·On those who believe and do deeds of righteousness there is no blame for what they ate (in the past), when they guard themselves from evil, and believe...  (5: 93/A)

 

·They perform (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil flies far and wide. And they feed, for the love of God, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive,- (saying), “We feed you for the sake of God alone: no reward do we desire from you, nor thanks.” (76: 7-9/A)

 

Charity

 

·And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with God; for God sees well all that ye do. (2: 110/A)

 

·And spend of your substance in the cause of God, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for God loveth those who do good. (2: 195/A)

 

·The parable of those who spend their substance in the way of God is that of a grain of corn: it groweth seven ears, and each ear hath a hundred grains. God giveth manifold increase to whom He pleaseth. And God careth for all and He knoweth all things. Those who spend their substance in the cause of God, and follow not up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury,-for them their reward is with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. Kind words and the covering of faults are better than charity followed by injury. God is free of all wants, and He is Most-Forbearing. O ye who believe! cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury,- like those who spend their substance to be seen of men, but believe neither in God nor in the Last Day. They are in parable like a hard, barren rock, on which is a little soil: on it falls heavy rain, which leaves it (just) a bare stone. They will be able to do nothing with aught they have earned. And God guideth not those who reject faith. And the likeness of those who spend their substance, seeking to please God and to strengthen their souls, is as a garden, high and fertile: heavy rain falls on it but makes it yield a double increase of harvest, and if it receives not heavy rain, light moisture sufficeth it. (2: 261-265/A)

 

·If ye disclose (acts of) charity, even so it is well, but if ye conceal them, and make them reach those (really) in need, that is best for you: It will remove from you some of your (stains of) evil. And God is well acquainted with what ye do. (2: 271/A)

 

·For those who give in Charity, men and women, and loan to God a Beautiful Loan, it shall be increased manifold (to their credit), and they shall have (besides) a liberal reward. (57: 18/A)

 

·But if ye are constant and do right, not the least harm will their cunning do to you...(3: 120/A)

 

Gentle dealing

 

·This is part of the Mercy of God that thou dost deal gently with them. Wert thou severe or harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about thee... (3: 159/A)

 

Hypocrisy condemned

 

·So He hath put as a consequence hypocrisy into their hearts, (to last) till the Day, whereon they shall meet Him: because they broke their covenant with God, and because they lied (again and again).  (9: 77/A)

 

·O Prophet! Fear God, and hearken not to the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites: verily God is full of Knowledge and Wisdom. (33: 1/A)

 

·That God may reward the men of Truth for their Truth, and punish the Hypocrites if that be His Will, or turn to them in Mercy: for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (33: 24/A)

 

·Truly, if the Hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who stir up sedition in the City, desist not, We shall certainly stir thee up against them: Then will they not be able to stay in it as thy neighbours for any length of time: (33: 60/A)

 

·When it is said to them: “Come to what God hath revealed, and to the Messenger.: Thou seest the Hypocrites avert their faces from thee in disgust. (4: 61/A)

 

·To the Hypocrites give the glad tidings that there is for them (but) a grievous penalty... (4: 138/A)

 

·The Hypocrites - they think they are over-reaching God, but He will over- reach them: When they stand up to prayer, they stand without earnestness, to be seen of men, but little do they hold God in remembrance;  (They are) distracted in mind even in the midst of it,- being (sincerely) for neither one group nor for another whom God leaves straying,- never wilt thou find for him the way. (4: 142-143/A)

 

·The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire: no helper wilt thou find for them.. (4: 145/A)

 

Avoid sins

 

·And if any one earns sin, he earns it against His own soul: for God is full of knowledge and wisdom. (4: 111/A)

 

·…So be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust; but seek the forgiveness of God. For God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. Contend not on behalf of such as betray their own souls; for God loveth not one given to perfidy and crime... (4: 105-107/A)

 

No conspiracies

 

·In most of their secret talks there is no good... (4: 114/A)

 

·God loveth not that evil should be noised abroad in public speech, except where injustice hath been done; for God is He who heareth and knoweth all things. (4: 148/A)

 

No impudence

 

·Say: the things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason. (7: 33/A)

 

No disputes

 

·And obey God and His Messenger; and fall into no disputes...( 8: 46 /A)

 

No mischief

 

·Why were there not, among the generations before you, persons possessed of balanced good sense, prohibiting (men) from mischief in the earth - except a few among them whom We saved (from harm)?  (11: 116/A)

 

·But those who break the Covenant of God, after having plighted their word thereto, and cut asunder those things which God has commanded to be joined, and work mischief in the land;- on them is the curse; for them is the terrible home! (13: 25/A)

 

·Nor sell the covenant of God for a miserable price: for with God is (a prize) far better for you, if ye only knew. (16: 95/A)

 

·Eat of the things which God hath provided for you, lawful and good; but fear God, in Whom ye believe. (5: 88/A)

 

No oaths for bad purposes

 

·And take not your oaths, to practise deception between yourselves, with the result that someone’s foot may slip after it was firmly planted, and ye may have to taste the evil (consequences) of having hindered (men) from the Path of God, and a Mighty Wrath  descend on you. (16: 94/A)

 

Neither a miser nor a spendthrift

 

·Make not thy hand tied (like a niggard’s) to thy neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach, so that thou become blameworthy and destitute. (17: 29/A)

 

·And render to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to those in want, and to the wayfarer: But squander not (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the Evil Ones; and the Evil One is to his Lord (himself) ungrateful... (17: 26-27/A)

 

·And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge...( 17: 36 /A)

 

Avoid superstitions

 

·They ask thee concerning the New Moons. Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men, and for Pilgrimage. It is no virtue if ye enter your houses from the back: It is virtue if ye fear God. Enter houses through the proper doors: and fear God; that ye may prosper.  (2: 189/A)

 

·Out of what God hath produced in abundance in tilth and in cattle, they assigned Him a share: they say, according to their fancies: “This is for God, and this” - for our “partners”! But the share of their “partners” reacheth not God, whilst the share of God reacheth their “partners” ! Evil (and unjust) is their  assignment! (6: 136/A)

 

·And they say that such and such cattle and crops are taboo, and none should eat of them except those whom - so they say - We wish; further, there are cattle forbidden to yoke or burden, and cattle on which, (at slaughter), the name of God is not pronounced; - inventions against God’s name: soon will He requite them for their inventions. They say: “What is in the wombs of such and such cattle is specially reserved (for food) for our men, and forbidden to our women; but if it is stillborn, then all have share therein. (6: 138-139/A)

 

·Even so, in the eyes of most of the pagans, their “partners” made alluring the slaughter of their children, in order to lead them to their own destruction, and cause confusion in their religion. (6: 137/A)

 

No boasting, no arrogance

 

·For God loveth not any vainglorious boaster,- such persons as are covetous and commend covetousness to men. (57: 23-24/A)

 

·Nor walk on the earth with insolence: for thou canst not rend the earth asunder, nor reach the mountains in height. (17: 37/A)

 

·“And swell not thy cheek (for pride) at men, nor walk in insolence through the earth; for God loveth not any arrogant boaster. (31: 18/A)

 

No slanders

 

·And those who annoy believing men and women undeservedly, bear (on themselves) a calumny and a glaring sin. (33: 58/A)

 

·The blame is only against those who oppress men and wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a penalty grievous. (42: 42/A)

 

No laughing at others

 

·O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames...  (49: 11/A)

 

Suspiciousness disliked

 

·O ye who believe! Avoid suspicion as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin: and spy not on each other behind their backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, ye would abhor it...(49: 12/A)

 

·Woe to the falsehood-mongers,- those who (flounder) heedless in a flood of confusion.  (51: 10-11/A)

 

Avoid shamelessness

 

·Those who avoid great sins and shameful deeds, only (falling into) small faults,- verily thy Lord is ample in forgiveness. He knows you well when He brings you out of the earth, and when ye are hidden in your mothers’ wombs. Therefore justify not yourselves: He knows best who it is that guards against evil. Seest thou one who turns back, gives a little, then hardens (his heart)? (53: 32-34/A)

 

·They reject (the warning) and follow their (own) lusts...(54: 3/A)\

 

·Nor expect, in giving, any increase (for thyself)! But, for thy Lord’s (Cause), be patient and constant!  (74: 6-7/A)

 

·So woe to the worshippers Who are neglectful of their prayers, Those who (want but) to be seen (of men), But refuse (to supply) (even) neighbourly needs. (107: 4-7/A)

 

Weigh correctly

 

·To the Madyan People (We sent) Shu’aib, one of their own brethren: he said: “O my people! worship God. Ye have no other god but Him. And give not short measure or weight: I see you in prosperity, but I fear for you the penalty of a day that will compass (you) all round. And O my people! give just measure and weight, nor withhold from the people the things that are their due: commit not evil in the land with    intent to do mischief. (11: 84-85/A)

 

·And the Firmament has He raised high, and He has set up the Balance (of Justice), in order that ye may not transgress (due) balance. So establish weight with justice and fall not short in the balance. (55: 7-9/A)\

 

Fraudulence really bad

 

·Woe to those that deal in fraud,- those who, when they have to receive by measure from men, exact full measure, but when they have to give by measure or weight to men, give less than due. (83: 1-3/A)

 

Polytheism never

 

·Behold, Luqman said to his son by way of instruction: “O my son! join not in worship (others) with God; for false worship is indeed the highest wrongdoing.” (31: 13/A)

 

·“O my son!”, (said Luqman), “If there be (but) the weight of a mustard-seed and it were (hidden) in a rock, or (anywhere) in the heavens or on earth, God will bring it forth: for God understands the finest   mysteries, (and) is well-acquainted (with them). O my son! establish regular prayer, enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong: and bear with patient constancy whatever betide thee; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs. And swell not thy cheek (for pride) at men, nor walk in insolence through the earth; for God loveth not any arrogant boaster. And be moderate in thy pace, and lower thy voice; for the harshest of sounds without doubt is the braying of the ass.” (31: 16-19/A)

 

Be good to parents

 

·And We have enjoined on man (to be good) to his parents: in travail upon travail did his mother bear him, and in years twain was his weaning: (hear the command), “Show gratitude to Me and to thy parents: to Me is (thy final) Goal. But if they strive to make thee join in worship with Me things of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them company in this life with justice (and consideration), and follow the way of those who turn to me (in love): in the end the return of you all is to Me, and I will tell you the truth (and meaning) of all that ye did.”  (31: 14-15/A)

 

Purification of soul

 

·“Nor do I absolve my own self (of blame): the (human) soul is certainly prone to evil, unless my Lord do bestow His Mercy: but surely my Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (12: 53/A)

 

·And I do call to witness the self-reproaching spirit: (Eschew Evil). (75: 2/A)

 

·To the righteous soul will be said:) “O (thou) soul, in (complete) rest and satisfaction! (89: 27/A)

 

·Whoever submits his whole self to God, and is a doer of good, has grasped indeed the most trust- worthy hand-hold: and with God rests the End and Decision of (all) affairs. (31: 22/A)

 

Work for God

 

·O thou folded in garments! Stand (to prayer) by night, but not all night,- half of it,- or a little less, or a little more; and recite Quran in slow, measured rhythmic tones. Soon shall We send down to thee a weighty Message. Truly the rising by night is most potent for governing (the soul), and most suitable for (framing) the Word (of Prayer and Praise). True, there is for thee by day prolonged occupation with ordinary duties: But keep in remembrance the name of thy Lord and devote thyself to Him wholeheartedly. (73: 1-8/A)

 

Remembrance of God

 

·Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee. But God doth appoint night and day in due measure. He knoweth that ye are unable to keep count thereof. So He hath turned to you (in mercy): read ye, therefore, of Quran as much as may be easy for you. He knoweth that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of God’s bounty; yet others fighting in God’s Cause; read ye, therefore, as much of Quran as may be easy (for you); and establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and loan to God a Beautiful Loan. And whatever good ye send forth for your souls ye shall find it in God’s Presence,- yea, better and greater, in Reward and seek ye the Grace of God; for God is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. (73: 20/A)

 

·O ye who believe! stand out firmly for God, as   witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of   others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear God. For God is well-acquainted with all that ye do. (5: 108/A)

 

 

·And do thou (O reader!) Bring thy Lord to remembrance in thy (very) soul, with humility and in reverence, without loudness in words, in the mornings and evenings; and be not thou of those who are unheedful. Those who are near to thy Lord, disdain not to do Him worship: They celebrate His praises, and bow down before Him. (7: 205-206/A)

 

·“Those who believe, and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of God; for without doubt in the remembrance of God do hearts find    satisfaction. For those who believe and work righteousness, is (every) blessedness, and a beautiful place of (final) return.” (13: 28-29/A)

 

·Those who spend their wealth for increase in self-purification, and have in their minds no favour from anyone for which a reward is expected in return, but only the desire to seek for the Countenance of their Lord Most High; and soon will they attain (complete) satisfaction.  (92: 18-21/A)

 

God’s pleasure

 

·Those who patiently persevere, seeking the countenance of their Lord; establish regular prayers; spend, out of (the gifts) We have bestowed for their sustenance, secretly and openly; and turn off evil with good: for such there is the final attainment of the (eternal) home... (13: 22/A)

 

 


 


 

 
 
 

 


 
 

 


 

SERIES: A Systematic Study of the Holy Qur'an

 

CONTENTS

  

PART I: FAITH                                                 

 

 

 

PART II: PHILOSOPHY

 

 

PART III: CONSTITUTION

 

 

PART IV: THE SYSTEM

 

 

PART V: THE HISTORY OF CONFRONTATION

 

?

Last Word: The Final Document of Peace

 


 

 

 

 

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